Traditional mechanical processing is operated by ordinary machine tools by hand. When processed, metal is cut by hand-operated mechanical tools, and the accuracy of products is measured by eye calipers and other tools. The modern industry has already used the machine tools controlled by computer digitally to operate. The NC machine tools can automatically process any products and parts according to the program programmed by technicians in advance. This is what we call "CNC Machining".
CNC machining is widely used in any field of mechanical processing, and it is also the development trend and important and necessary technical means of die processing. "CNC" is abbreviation of Computerized Numerical Control. What is NC technology? Numerical Control is abbreviated as NC. It is a method to control the movement and processing of machine tools by using digital information.
Machine tools that use numerical control technology to implement industrial control, or machine tools equipped with numerical control system, are called numerical control (NC) machine tools. NC system includes NC device, programmable controller, spindle driver and feed device. NC machine tool is a highly integrated product of machine, electricity, liquid, gas and light. In order to control the machine tool, it is necessary to use geometric information to describe the relative motion between the tool and the workpiece and use process information to describe some process parameters necessary for machine tool processing. For example: feed speed, spindle speed, spindle forward and backward, tool change, coolant switch, etc. These information are stored on the information carrier (such as disk, perforated tape, tape, etc.) in a certain format, and then read in by the CNC system on the machine tool (or directly input by the keyboard of the CNC system, or by means of communication). By decoding, the machine tool can move and process parts.
Modern NC machine tools are typical products of mechatronics, and are the technical foundation of new generation production technology and computer integrated manufacturing system. The development trend of modern NC machine tools is high speed, high precision, high reliability, multi-function, compound, intelligent and open structure. The main trend of development is to develop an intelligent universal NC device with open structure in both software and hardware. NC technology is the basis of machine automation and the core technology of NC machine tools. Its level is related to the strategic position of the country and the level reflecting the comprehensive strength of the country. It develops with the development of information technology, microelectronics technology, automation technology and testing technology.
CNC Machining Center is a kind of CNC machine tool with tool library and automatic tool replacement, which can perform various processing operations on workpieces within a certain range. The characteristics of CNC precision parts on the machining center are as follows: after a clamp, the NC system can control the machine tool to automatically select and change the cutting tools according to different processes. It can automatically change the spindle speed, feed rate and the tool's movement track relative to the workpiece and it has other auxiliary functions. Continuous automatic drilling, countersinking, reaming, boring, tapping, milling and other processes are carried out on the workpiece surface. Because the machining center can accomplish many kinds of processes centrally and automatically, it avoids artificial operation errors, reduces the adjustment time of workpiece clamping, measuring and machine tool, and the time of workpiece turnover, handling and storage. It greatly improves the processing efficiency and accuracy, so it has good economic benefits. Machining centers can be divided into vertical machining centers and horizontal machining centers according to the position of the spindle in space.