CNC is the abbreviation of Computer numerical control. It is an automatic machine tool controlled by program. CNC means the application of numerical control technology. C means the computer, N means numerical, and C means the control. It means computer controlled digital unit allows machine tools to make the required instructions for processing. The control system can process the program with control code or other symbolic instructions logically, and decode it by computer, so that the machine can perform the prescribed action, and the blank can be processed into semi-finished parts by cutting tools.
It usually controls mechanical quantities such as position, angle, speed and switch quantities related to the flow direction of mechanical energy. The generation of numerical control depends on the emergence of data carrier and binary data operation. In 1908, perforated sheet metal interchangeable data carrier came out. At the end of the 19th century, control systems with paper as data carrier and auxiliary functions were invented. In 1938, Shannon carried out rapid data calculation and transmission at MIT, which laid the foundation of modern computers, including computer digital control systems. CNC technology is developed in close combination with machine tool control. In 1952, the first CNC machine tool came out, which became an epoch-making event in the history of world machinery industry and it promoted the development of automation.
Now, the numerical control technology is also called the computer numerical control technology. At present, it uses the computer to realize the digital program control technology. This technique uses a computer to perform the control function of the equipment according to the pre-stored control program. Because the computer is used to replace the numerical control device composed of hardware logic circuit, the realization of various control functions such as storage, processing, operation and logical judgment of input data can be accomplished by computer software.
CNC machine tool is a kind of Mechatronics processing equipment to create CNC precision parts with high technology density and automation. It is a comprehensive application of computer, automatic control, automatic detection and precision. It has high processing accuracy, easy quality assurance and broad development prospects. Therefore, it is particularly important to master the processing programming technology of CNC lathe.