In The Future, It Will Become The 4 Industrial Employment Killer?
We are at the beginning of a revolution, it will be on the way we live, work and interpersonal relationships bring a fundamental change". In the recent World Economic Forum in Davos, organizers said Klaus Schwab. Schwab said, there seems to be too alarmist. He said, the widely used technology in computer control, full automation and network of production and service industry, such as the use of robots in the future may lead to a large number of jobs.
But according to a survey released in Davos, not only will the 4 industry has been fully automated factory impact, will also impact on the office staff and services. Equipment consultants, nurses, taxi drivers will face the competition of high tech. "Frankfurt Sunday report" reported that, according to the survey, 4 in the industrial computer and the high-tech field creates new jobs, but to 2020, there will be five million traditional jobs.
In the future, it will become the 4 industrial employment killer? To answer this question, we need to go back to the 4 industry.
This is a hot word from Germany, in short, is the "fourth industrial revolution" referred to. (the first three are: Industrial 1 from the invention of the steam engine began; line 2 from 1870 the introduction of industrial division of labour is open; 3 1969 is the beginning of the industrial use of electricity and IT automation system upgrade. 4) industry is the intelligent production through the application of information physical system, through all production data barriers, wireless network control.
In fact, historically, whenever the world faces a new technological revolution, people are very worried about a large number of jobs. When the textile industry and handicraft workshop system was replaced machine production, textile industry and other traditional industries will be the introduction of new technology leads to a large number of workers were dismissed. However, during the industrial revolution, the birth of the technological revolution of the old occupation disappeared and new mode of production, why did not cause mass unemployment caused social unrest?
The University of Oxford professor Robert Alan in the "British Industrial Revolution" in global perspective on this issue made side answer. 17, since eighteenth Century, the British wages growth rate is generally higher than that of European countries, London has become the world's highest city workers average wage. The British employers tried to reduce labor cost, so as to make the goods more competitive in the market. The birth of a new technology can replace human production, and precisely fit the economic aspirations of them, which makes the bourgeoisie have the use of the new technology and the industrial revolution will and power. In many countries of Europe, the low wages for labor cost is much lower than the UK, factory owners to improve production technology to reduce the cost will naturally low a lot.
High wage labour, the more wealthy ordinary British workers have the opportunity to put money into the education and skills training, to master the new technology. According to statistics, in the UK in 1800 per capita literacy rate is 53%, much higher than the same period in Germany, France, Austria and other countries, these countries also maintained a literacy rate of roughly in the late Middle Ages level. Alan wrote: "after receiving education and training, the British people's literacy and numeracy is greatly improved, which obviously helps them create more new products and new technology. If things go on like this, Britain will gradually produce a large number of skilled Machinists and technicians in their minds ideas also can more easily into the new production technology."
The industrial transformation also occurred in the past after death. 19, the turn of the twentieth Century, the entire business also happened in a revolution. The popularization of "Ford economy" automatic production mode has become the mainstream of the times leading. Automated production line and professional management personnel to replace the skilled workers in the past. This change can smoothly, without causing too much unemployment and social unrest, as in the first industrial revolution, the premise is to the labor well prepared for class comparison.
According to statistics, at the end of nineteenth Century, only 3% of American adults have a high school degree or above. By 1920s, this number continues to rise, there are more than 1/4 Americans who finish high school and college. Professional production and management personnel with these higher order knowledge, knowledge structure has better and higher income. So, they can buy their own products to mass production. In the "change of capitalism" in the book, Stanley deBoer has thus concluded that the product design standardization, through large-scale production to reduce costs and labor to pay high wages three points, is the production mode of society during this successful transition.
The summary also can be said to be more than two times in the history of the industrial revolution summary. Complete transformation of the inevitable mode of production, in 4 Chinese after introducing industry will become a reality. Among them, the biggest challenge is to retrain those being squeezed out of the job market personnel. The fundamental change will always appear after the unemployment problem in the short term, but in the long term, whether the labor can quickly complete the knowledge structure, and then adjust the new skill, is always the successful completion of an important factor in this transformation.
No one doubts that industrial 4 can bring new wealth, the problem is who can get it. Of course China expected to become industrial 4 beneficiaries.
The change pattern of industry is quietly and quickly happening. For example, China private factories gathered in Dongguan, although there are still a lot of active factories, but successful manufacturers more and more inclined to use high-tech means to reduce the dependence on human. This is the difference between the past and the significant. "New York Times" reported a car factory in Alabama moved to Dongguan, set up a special auto parts factory. The factory is in production, industrial robots take an increasingly large proportion, only 400 workers, two shifts every day. "Chinese is no longer a low cost countries", report commented.
If the successful completion of industrial transformation in the future Chinese to 4, according to the historical experience of previous human industrial restructuring, essential high wages and labor to update the knowledge structure. But today already lost the low labor cost advantage, and industrial transformation and carrying forward our true, such as that of the United Kingdom and the United States that have to make full preparations.? generally our knowledge of the structure of the manufacture industry from the old 3 or even 2 of the way of thinking, step forward it?
If the answer is no, then the industry 4 to us doesn't mean a good news.
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